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Aniracetam Nootropic Benefits, Side Effects How It Works

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Aniracetam Nootropic Benefits, Side Effects How It Works

Aniracetam is a nootropic supplement or smart drug which was developed in the 1970's by the Hoffman-La Roche (Belgium) company.

This compound is part of a class of nootropics known as Racetams, which are noted for their ability to promote cognitive function and increase cholinergic neurotransmission.

Aniracetam also exhibits an anxiolytic effect (meaning that it reduces feelings of anxiety) and is purported to enhance mood alongside memory and focus.

This nootropic drug has been well-studied for a number of years and is regarded as well-tolerated with minor side effects and a low level of toxicity.

However, before using Aniracetam it is important to understand what the benefits are, how this supplement works, dosages and stacks, as well as the risk of side effects.

While research shows that it can improve cognitive function in cases where there is some form of deficit or impairment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether it works to improve cognition in healthy adults. 


ALSO KNOWN ASN-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)pyrrolidin-2-one, Aniracetamum, Aniracétam, Ro 135057
TRADE NAMESAmpamet, Aniracetam-Sanhome, Memodrin, Draganon, Sarpul, Referan, Pergamid, Bi Si Ling, Bo Bang Lin, San Le Xi, Shuntan, Yi Ling Shu
CATEGORYNootropic, Racetam, Ampakine
TYPENootropic Agent, Central Stimulant, Anxiolytic Agent, Antidepressive Agents
  • USA: Not approved by the FDA, Not Scheduled
  • Canada: Not approved, Not scheduled
  • UK: Prescription-Only Medication
  • Australia: Schedule 4 Prescription Only Medicine
  • Japan: Prescription Medication
  • Italy: Prescription Medication
  • Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer type
  • Cognitive Impairment
  • Memory Disorders linked to Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Attention Disturbances of Degenerative Origin
  • Anxiety/Depression after Cerebral Infarction (Stroke)
  • Epilepsy
  • Nootropic
  • Cognitive Enhancement
  • Creativity
  • Mood-Boosting
  • Focus & Motivation
  • Social Anxiety
  • Studying & Academic Performance
  • Facilitates cholinergic neurotransmission
  • Positive modulator of metabotropic and AMPA ionotropic glutamate receptors
  • Metabolites also exhibit positive effects on memory
  • Increases release of noradrenaline
  • Stimulation of GABA, Serotonin & Dopamine receptors
DOSAGE750 mg or 1500 mg per day, split into 1 - 2 administrations
STACKED WITHPiracetam, Pramiracetam, Oxiracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Noopept, Choline, Alpha GPC, Citicoline, Centrophenoxine, DMAE, Phosphatidylcholine, Adderall, Modafinil (Provigil), Phenibut
ATC CODEN06BX11 (WHO): N06 Psychoanaleptics > NO6B Psychostimulants, agents used for adhd and nootropics > NO6BX Other psychostimulants and nootropics
ABSOPRTIONRapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
ABSOLUTE BIOAVAILABILITY0.02% due to extensive biodegradation
  • N-anisoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (N-anisoyl-GABA)
  • 2-pyrrolidinone
  • Succinimide
  • Anisic acid
  • Urine (84%)
  • Feces (2%)
  • Respiration

What is Aniracetam?


Aniracetam is also known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, Referan, Draganon, Pergamid, Sarpul, Ampamet, and Memodrin.

It was developed as a more powerful analog of the nootropic drug Piracetam (Nootropil). The name "Aniracetam" comes from the Japanese prefix "Ani" which translates to "big brother."

It is said to be 3-6 times more potent than Piracetam and has greater oral bio-availability, in part due to the fact that it is fat soluble (lipophilic).

This nootropic has been sold in Europe as a prescription drug for the treatment of several cognitive disorders, but it has not been approved for use in the United States.

It is the archetype of the ampakine class of nootropics and has the chemical structure of a racetam because it shares a pyrrolidone nucleus.

All racetam nootropics are synthetic (man-made) chemicals that work by influencing receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Aniracetam also works by affecting AMPA receptor sites for the neurotransmitter glutamate.

Together, these two excitatory neurotransmitters are believed to be responsible for memory formation, recall, focus, thinking and related cognitive processes.


Aniracetam is believed to affect receptors for the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and glutamate. These brain chemicals play a role in memory, attention, learning and mental performance.

Aniracetam Nootropic Benefits, Side Effects How It Works

Benefits of Aniracetam

The purported benefits of Aniracetam are primarily related to improved mental performance and mood.

It has been studied for its nootropic effects on memory, cognition, attention and learning capacity.

Research suggests that it may support processes related to both long-term memory formation and short-term memory processing (working memory).

This supplement is anecdotally said to improve mental focus and reduce distractibility. Many users note that their attention span is increased as well as being able to focus and concentrate much more easily.

It serves to improve mental fluidity for some users, making even simple, routine tasks such as reading and writing (and holding conversations) seem to flow much more easily, without expending as much effort as before using Aniracetam supplements.

According to user testimonials, some individuals experience a stimulating effect when taking this nootropic agent while others experience a sensation of relaxation and calm as well as attenuation of depressive feelings.

Aniracetam is often used by individuals with social anxiety to produce a calming anxiolytic effect before engaging in social activities. However, it has not been approved by the FDA as a drug for the treatment of anxiety or related mood disorders.

Many of the benefits reported above are based on user experiences and testimonials. Not everyone will respond to this nootropic in the same way. Some individuals do not experience benefits when taking Aniracetam and may see an exacerbation of brain fog or reduced mental clarity.

User reviews of Aniracetam's effects suggests that this nootropic may promote memory, focus as well as mood balance. Not all users experience the same benefits and most of the evidence for these benefits comes from anecdotal testimonials, as opposed to clinical research trials.


Aniracetam vs. Piracetam

Aniracetam is purported to be more powerful than Piracetam, requiring a dosage between 3 - 5 times lower than this original nootropic.

Aniracetam was first developed by modifying the Piracetam molecule. This change resulted in significant faster action (as well as breakdown) in the body and a slightly different profile of effects.

It is theorized that Aniracetam is more potent because it has greater oral bioavailability. This nootropic is fat-soluble and is better absorbed from the gut.

The effects of Aniracetam are described as kicking in much faster than Piracetam. It is also considered to have more of a stimulating effect and a discernable mood-enhancement effect.

Aniracetam users report that this nootropic boosts focus, motivation, attention and confidence to a greater degree than Piracetam.

Conversely, Piracetam has less of an effect on depression, anxiety or sociability and tends to produce a more relaxed feeling of mental clarity. The effects of Piracetam also tend to last for a longer period of time.

In one comparative research study, dosages of 1500 mg oral Aniracetam were compared to 2400 mg of oral Piracetam. Note that this is significantly lower than the typical therapeutic dosage of Piracetam used today, which is between 4800 mg to 9600 mg per day.

In this study, healthy volunteers between the ages of 19 to 34 years old were given scopolamine, which is a drug used to induce cognitive impairment. Participants given the aniracetam performed superior to those given a placebo, while those taking Piracetam did no better than those on the placebo.

In another 6-month, double-blind study participants were given 750 mg of Aniracetam twice a day or 800 mg of Piracetam three times daily.

Participants were 115 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate SDAT based on the criteria established by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS/ADRDA).

Participants were tested for 18 different variables at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Those given Aniracetam showed significant improvement on 17 of the 18 scores measured, compared to only 9 out of 18 for those given placebo.

Furthermore, Aniracetam was found to be more effective than Piracetam on 8 of the tested variables. Because this study did not include a control group given a placebo, the results cannot clearly be interpreted.

However, the findings suggest that a 1500 mg per day dosage of Aniracetam is more effective for the treatment of cognitive deficits than a 2400 mg per day dosage of Piracetam.

1500 mg dosages of Aniracetam have performed better than 2400 mg dosages of Piracetam. Aniracetam also exhibits positive effects on mood, which Piracetam does not exhibit.


How Aniracetam Works:

While the exact method of action for Aniracetam is still not completely understood, there are several theories about how this nootropic works.

It is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and affects several key brain chemicals called neurotransmitters.

Aniracetam binds to acetylcholine receptors, causing this neurotransmitter to remain active in the brain for an extended period of time.

This action is thought to be primarily responsible for the majority of its cognitive benefits since this neurotransmitter is a vital player in many cognitive processes (especially memory, learning and focus).

There is also thought to be some modulation of additional chemicals within the brain. These are Dopamine, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and Serotonin.

Dopamine is thought to be primarily responsible for functions like mood and movement. Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter chemical that helps to regulate sleep and wake cycles, among other things.

By promoting activity in these chemical receptor sites, the supplement is possibly able to help in the areas of improving anxiety and other mood issues.

Multiple animal studies demonstrate that this nootropic has a neuroprotective effect by improving glucose metabolism and preventing the generation of free radical molecules. It is believed to have anti-oxidant benefits for brain cells.

Aniracetam has also been shown to protect against excitotoxicity caused by overactivation of glutamate receptors. When the receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate are over-stimulated, it can result in damage to neurons and cause premature neuronal death.

Aniracetam exhibits a neuroprotective effect and may prevent oxidative damage in brain cells. It is thought to affect a number of different messenger chemical in the brain, including dopamine, GABA and serotonin.

Mechanism of Action

Below are some of the mechanisms of action for this smart drug observed in research trials.

Cholinergic Receptors: Aniracetam is a positive modulator of the nicotinic class of acetylcholine receptors. This means it increases activity at nicotinic receptors in the brain, which are linked to focus, memory and cognition.

In animal studies, rodents that are given cholinergic antagonists (drugs that block activity at acetylcholine receptors) are known to experience dysfunction in memory and learning.

When giving those rodents Aniracetam, this nootropic is able to reduce the deficits caused by cholinergic antagonists.

Aniracetam has also been shown to increase the release of acetylcholine from the hippocampus in the brain. The hippocampus is the part of the brain responsible for the consolidation of short-term memory to long-term memory.

AMPA Receptors: Aniracetam positively modulates the AMPA class of glutamate receptors in the brain. Glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

AMPA stands for Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid. This class of receptors is involved in memory, synaptic plasticity and fast synaptic transmission.

Research shows that aniracetam binds to non-active sites of this receptor and modulates these receptors to reduce the rate at which they become desensitized. The result is that when an AMPA receptor agonist like glutamate binds to the receptor, its activation is enhanced.

It is unclear what specific effect this has on memory and learning in humans. It has been theorized that increasing the activation of AMPA receptors may increase Long-Term Potentiation, which is how memories get stored in the brain.

The theory is that use of Aniracetam can make it easier for new memories to form and to be retained. However, this has not yet been demonstrated in human research trials on healthy adults.

Adrenergic Receptors: One of the secondary effects of increased AMPA receptor activation is greater release of noradrenaline from neurons. Noradrenaline is a stimulatory brain chemical that increases alertness, focus and energy.

It is part of the body's fight-or-flight stress response. When noradrenaline levels are higher, the result is greater arousal, vigilance, attention, cognitive function, anxiety and restlessness.

Due to the mild stimulant-like properties of Aniracetam, it may disrupt sleep patterns if taken late in the day.

GABAergic Receptors: Aniracetam is reported to enhance the inhibitory effect of the GABA neurotransmitter (Gamma-Aminobutyric acid). GABA has a calming effect on the brain and may be responsible for mediating the purported anxiolytic effect of this nootropic.

Serotonergic Receptors: Aniracetam is thought to prevent the breakdown of serotonin at its receptor sites. This is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, sleep, anxiety and feelings of contentment.

Serotonin is sometimes referred to as the "Happy Hormone". By inhibiting its breakdown after it has been released from a neuronal vesicle, Aniracetam may cause greater activation of serotonin receptors in the brain.

Dopaminergic Receptors: This nootropic is observed to increase the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which can cause greater activation of the dopaminergic receptor system.

Dopamine is involved in mood, attentional control, motivation, desire and the reward system feedback loop. Some sources attribute the benefits of Aniracetam for focus and motivation to increased dopamine activity.

While all of these mechanisms of action have been observed in animal research studies, more research is needed to pinpoint how Aniracetam works in humans. People respond differently to the effects of this smart drug and more needs to be understood about its neurological effects.

Treatment of Cognitive Impairment

In one 1994 meta-review of the therapeutic effects of Aniracetam, positive results were described for the treatment of senile cognitive disorders.

In the study described, elderly patients diagnosed with mild to moderate cases of cognitive impairment were given 1,500 mg per day for four to six months.

Patients all exhibit signs of senile dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. They were given 18 different tests to measure their cognitive function.

After the trial, the Alzheimer patients given 1,500 mg of Aniracetam performed better than the control group given a placebo across 18 of the 18 different tests performed.

Another treatment group in the trial was given 2,400 mg of Piracetam per day. Compared to the patients given Piracetam, those given Aniracetam performed better on 8 of the 18 tests after the 6 month trial period.

Aniracetam ADHD Treatment

Aniracetam is sometimes used as an off-label remedy for ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder).

There have not been any research studies conducted into the use of this nootropic for this purpose and it has not been approved by the FDA in the United States as a treatment for this medical condition.

Research studies suggest that there may be benefits for cognitive function and behaviors related to attentional control and impulsivity, but it has yet to be studied in a population of individuals diagnosed with this condition.

The related nootropic Piracetam was studied for its therapeutic effects on ADHD in children at dosages of either 70 mg/kg of bodyweight daily or 40 mg/kg.

Both groups saw improvements in behavioral characteristics, motor coordination and assessments of attention. The treatment group given the higher dosage experienced a 60% response rate, while those given the lower dosage saw a 43% response rate.

Mood, Anxiety and Depression

User reviews of Aniracetam capsules suggest a mood enhancement effect that is described as increasing positive emotions, boosting confidence, promoting relaxation and inhibiting negative thoughts.

Aniracetam demonstrates several mechanisms of action that can promote benefits for mood, depression and anxiety. It has a strong anxiolytic effect, attributed to its ability to stimulate GABA receptors in the brain.

One of the metabolites of this nootropic agent is N-anisoyl-GABA (4-p-anisaminobutyric acid), which is an analogue for the neurotransmitter gamma-amino-butyric acid.

Following oral ingestion in humans, 70% of Aniracetam is quickly broken down or converted into n-anisoyl-GABA. It appears that this metabolite is responsible for many of the effects of Aniracetam on mood and cognition.

It is unclear how specifically Aniracetam stimulates GABA receptors. Aniracetam decreases kainate receptor sensitivity, which may help to prevent excessive excitatory signalling. Aniracetam may also have a direct effect on these receptors.

One theory is that N-anisoyl-GABA can bind to and activate GABA receptors, resulting in an anxiolytic response. GABA is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, working to prevent over-stimulation of neurons that can lead to feelings of anxiety.

In people who have social anxiety, general anxiety disorder, paranoia or who commonly experience stress and anxious thoughts, taking a GABAergic drug may help to calm those overactive thoughts. Benzodiazepines and phenibut both work by stimulating GABA receptors in the brain.

N-anisoyl-GABA can also stimulate Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, which play a role in enhancing the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the prefrontal cortex.

N-anisoyl-GABA has also been shown to stimulate the release of Dopamine (DA) and Serotonin (5-HT) in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC), Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN).

In a research study, N-anisoyl-GABA was directly perfused into the relevant regions in the rat brain. Results showed that this Aniracetam metabolite (along with the metabolite p-anisic acid) resulted in enhanced release of dopamine and serotonin.

These are two of the neurochemicals closely connected to mood regulation, feelings of pleasure and relaxation.

Dopamine is involved in the reward feedback loop and is responsible for our ability to direct our efforts towards a goal. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter that plays a role in focus, pleasure, motivation and executive function.

Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is linked to feelings of satisfaction, comfort, relaxation, calm as well as being involved in sleep regulation. Increasing serotonin activity is purported to alleviate anxiety and feelings of nervousness.

By influencing the release of these two mood-regulating brain chemicals, Aniracetam may be able to promote a mood-lifting effect and increase social behaviour.

Aniracetam has been shown to have mood-enhancing effects. It has an anxiolytic effect, mediated by GABA receptors. Metabolites of this nootropic have been shown to increase the release of Serotonin and Dopamine from neurons in the rat brain as well.

Aniracetam Dosage:

The prescribing information for this medication generally recommends a dosage of 600mg, 750mg, 1000mg or 1500mg per day.

It is recommended to start with a low dose of Aniracetam to gauge individual tolerance and to titrate based on effects observed. Dosages may be gradually increased until the lowest effective dosage is achieved.

In research studies on Aniracetam's clinical use, dosages of 600mg to 2000mg per day have been administered for the treatment of memory disorders and cerebrovascular disease.

In Japan, patients with anxiety or depression linked to a cerebral infarction are recommended to take dosages of 200 mg, three times per day.

Patients diagnosed with Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (SDAT) have been given dosages of 1000mg - 1500mg daily, administered in one dosing or as two 750mg oral tablets taken twice a day.

Elderly individuals experiencing memory deficits or attention disorders with vascular origin have also been given 1500mg in a single dose or split into two dosages per day.

A typical dosage for nootropic benefits is 1.5 grams split between three times per day.

It should be taken early in the day to avoid disruptions to your sleep cycle. Due to its stimulant-like effects, use of this nootropic late in the day could cause or worsen insomnia symptoms.

Aniracetam is usually stacked with a choline supplement to increase efficacy and prevent some side effects. A dosage ratio of 4:1 or 5:1 is often recommended.

This means that for every 1 gram of Aniracetam you should consume 200 - 250mg of choline. Some examples of supplements that contain choline include CDP Choline, Alpha GPC, Lecithin and Choline Bitartrate.

This nootropic usually comes in the form of a film-coated tablet or oral capsule. It is also sold in granule or bulk powder form. The most common dosages are 750mg and 1500mg per serving.

The granules or powder are usually mixed into water or milk to be swallowed. Due to the unpleasant taste perceived by some people, the oral pills are generally the preferred method for taking Aniracetam.

Pills or granular mixtures may contain additives and non-medicinal ingredients such as sodium amide glycolate, sorbitol, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, balsamic aroma, sodium cyclamate, methyldroxy propyl cellulose, sodic saccharine, saccharose, grapefruit aroma, fructose, mint aroma, banana aroma, aspartame, xylitol, magnesium stearate, titanium dioxide, methyldroxy propyl cellulose or E 172.

Determine whether you have an allergy to any of these additives or artificial sweeteners before deciding which form of Aniracetam to buy. There are a number of different formulations available on the marketplace.

Intravenous aniracetam has also been used in some research studies and as a clinical therapy for certain medical conditions. As an IV treatment, it is typically administered at a dosage of 10 or 100 mg.


Aniracetam is typically used in a dosage of between 750 mg to 1500 mg per day, split into 1-3 doses. It is usually combined with a choline source in a ratio of 4:1 or 5:1.

How to Take Aniracetam

Research studies show that it is well-absorbed from the gut even on an empty stomach. However, consuming it with a fat source is presumed to increase absorption and to minimize negative effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

It is advised to take this nootropic 15 minutes after consuming a meal rich in good fats. Some examples of brain-healthy fats include fish oil, egg yolks, whole milk, high-fat yogurt, almonds, salmon and other fatty fish.

Aniracetam has low bioavailability, which means that only a small amount of the dosage consume will be active and pass through the blood-brain barrier.

You should take the medicine at the same time every day. In case you miss a dose of Aniracetam, it is recommended to take this skipped dosage as soon as you remember and to adhere to a regular schedule of administration.

If it is almost time to take your next regular dose, skin the missed dose. Do not take a double dose to compensate for a forgotten dose.

Consult with a licensed doctor and pharmacist to determine the right dosage of this nootropic for you. Check with them about adjusting the dosage if you are using any prescription or over-the-counter medications, dietary supplements, herbal products or nutritional vitamins.

How Long Does It Take to See Aniracetam Effects? Aniracetam is considered to be a fast-acting nootropic agent and some users report experiencing improvements immediately upon use.

The first signs that Aniracetam is working can include increased mental attention, sharper visual perceptions with brighter colors, greater arousal or a subtle improvement in memory.

It is believed to be rapidly absorbed from the gut and circulated through the body. Pharmacokinetic research suggests that it takes approximately 2 hours for peak plasma concentrations to be achieved.

While some effects may be noticeable in the short-term, prescribing information for this nootropic suggests that many of the benefits can take longer to develop. According to one source, "The therapeutic effect of Aniracetam is seen after about 60 days and may be more pronounced after 4 months of treatment."

What is the half-life of Aniracetam? This nootropic has a half-life of 1 - 2.5 hours, which is one of the shortest among racetam drugs. Upon oral ingestion, it is rapidly degraded by first pass hepatic metabolism.

When you consume this supplement orally, it is quickly broken down in the body by the liver and eliminated as the metabolites N-anisoyl-GABA, 2-Pyrrolidinone and p-anisic acid.

Dosages are taken multiple times a day to increase the duration of effects. Sources recommend that users take Aniracetam dosages two or three times during the day: morning, afternoon and early evening.

Aniracetam powder is water insoluble and fat soluble; it should be consumed with a meal to increase absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Consuming it with milk, fish oil or other sources of healthy fats is recommended to improve oral bioavailability.

Aniracetam is fat-soluble, which means that it has better absoprtion from the gut than water-soluble racetam compounds. It should be consumed with a meal and a fat source to increase oral bioavailability and prevent gastrointestinal side effects.

Can you Overdose on Aniracetam?

This nootropic exhibits a low degree of toxicity and there is a low risk of overdosing. In animals studies, the LD50 (lethal dose required to kill 50% of treatment subjects) for rats is observed to be 400x greater than the recommended dosage.

If you do accidentally consume an overdose and experience negative effects, seek out medical assistance immediately.

Aniracetam Stacks:

Among nootropic users, it is common to stack Aniracetam with other racetams to achieve synergistic benefits.

The general idea is that by combining several supplements together, a user may experience greater benefits than if you were to use a single nootropic in isolation.

One popular nootropic stack involves combining Aniracetam with Piracetam and Oxiracetam or cycling between these nootropics.

Another common supplement to use is Alpha GPC or another high quality Choline source. This is thought to potentiate the effects of all of Racetam nootropics which work by activating cholinergic receptors in the brain.

Below are some of the nootropic supplements commonly stacked with Aniracetam:

  • Piracetam
  • Oxiracetam
  • Pramiracetam
  • Phenylpiracetam
  • Noopept
  • Choline Bitartrate
  • Alpha Glycerlphosphorylcholine
  • Phosphatidylcholine
  • Phosphatidylserine
  • CDP Choline (Citicoline)
  • DMAE Bitartrate
  • Phenibut
  • Bacopa Monnieri

Clinical Uses:

In certain Eastern European countries, there are a number of clinical uses for Aniracetam. It was first introduced as a clinical drug in 1993.

There is ongoing research being conducted into its effects on conditions related to Alzheimer's disease, age-related memory loss and cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment.

While it has not been researched as a treatment for ADHD, reviews by some patients indicate it may have benefits for improving concentration and behavioral control.

Due to its effects upon the Dopamine and Serotonin receptors, there is also interest in using Aniracetam to address certain mood disorders. It is commonly taken off-label by individuals with nervousness or anxiety and mild depression.

It may also help to improve motivation and sleep disorders. There is also evidence to suggest it is helpful at treating incidents of motion sickness. Finally, Aniracetam is now being touted as an anti-aging supplement.

Experimental research studies on humans and animals suggest potential benefits of Aniracetam dosages for restoring cognitive function in various models of disease.

Studies have been conducted on the effects of Aniracetam in addressing the psychological and behavioral symptoms of elderly patients with dementia as well as patients with disorders of the Central Nervous System.

It has also been studied for its effects on cognitive function in patients following a stroke and in the treatment of slight-moderate brain decay.

It is reported to improve motor function, intellectual function and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Aniracetam has also been studied in animals for its potential effects in recovering cognitive function across a number of different models of cerebral dysfunctional disorders.

It has been studied on models of depression, bladder overactivity, anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, inability to pay attention (hypoattention), and impaired REM sleep.

These studies have indirectly examined the potential role of Aniracetam for chronic fatigue syndrome, social withdrawal, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism, personality disorders and sleep disorders.

It is important to note that most of this data comes from animal studies and pre-clinical trials. There is insufficient evidence to rate the effectiveness of Aniracetam for the treatment of these conditions.

Potential Side Effects:

The potential side effects when taking Aniracetam are normally quite mild, but can be more serious in some cases. For most people who experience any side effects at all (and the vast majority will not), the most common is headaches.

It is believed that racetam nootropic drugs may deplete choline stores in neurons by stimulating receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is synthesized from choline.

Some have hypothesized that increased acetylcholine activity could diminish choline levels in brain cells, which could result in headache symptoms developing.

While this has yet to be proven through research studies, observations of nootropic users indicate that combining Aniracetam with a choline source can eliminate the side effects.

Adding a form of Choline like the supplement Alpha GPC or Citicoline (CDP Choline) to your stack in the appropriate dosage ratio may help to alleviate the headaches and other minor side effects.

Additional Aniracetam side effects are reported to be mild. Some negative effects discussed in user reviews and research studies include:

  • Restlessness
  • Anxiety/Agitation
  • Brain Fog
  • Sleeplessness/Insomnia/Somnolence
  • Vivid Dreams/Nightmares
  • Vertigo
  • Mild Epigastric Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin Rash/Allergic Reaction

If these occur it is usually due to an excessive dose. Reducing the dosage is usually sufficient to experience a decline in side effects.

Aniracetam Nootropic Benefits, Side Effects How It Works

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